Artificial intelligence has proven its efficiency in almost all areas of life within a very short time. A study carried out at Oxford University has found that a technology formed using AI can predict heart attacks at least five years before they happen. This technology can be a great solution to the increasing risk of heart disease in people across the globe.
The study that came up with this discovery was funded by the British Heart Foundation (BHF), presented at the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress in Paris, and published in the European Heart Journal. Scientists used machine learning techniques to develop a fat radiomic profile (FRP) which is a novel biomarker or fingerprint.
This biomarker identifies danger or harm in the perivascular space lining blood vessels that carry blood to the heart. This machine detects symptoms of future heart attacks such as damage or changes in blood vessels and inflammation.
The study conducted by Professor Charalambos Antoniades at the University of Oxford examined the data of over 40,000 people from 8 hospitals in the UK who have been undergoing routine cardiac CT scans.
As part of the study, they examined the expression of genes related to scarring, inflammation, and new blood vessel formation. This was then matched to CCTA scans to determine which was better at spotting changes to perivascular fat surrounding the heart vessels.
After this, the team compared the CCTA scans of people who had a heart attack within 5 years of having a CCTA with those who did not. This was done to detect the changes in the perivascular area that suggest the risk of heart attacks. The new technology that they came up with will detect the degree of a heart attack.
The study found that people with serious narrowing of the arteries were at a high risk of heart disease. But, Professor Charalambos Antoniades who headed the study said that those with no narrowing of coronary arteries should not conclude that they are safe from heart attacks. He added that the tool they have developed will sense any adverse effects around the arteries in the heart and detect the early signs of the illness.
Antoniades added that they hope that this tool will be available soon across the NHS and help prevent several deaths caused due to late detection. The Medical Director at BHF, Professor Shri Nilesh Samani said that this fruitful research brings to light the great role that artificial intelligence can play in detecting those people who are at very high risk of future heart attacks.
According to a study published by Oxford University, the experts who created the biomarker gave AI-generated heart attack risk scores of 744 consecutive patients to health professionals. It found that in 45% of cases, clinicians changed treatment plans as required.
This impeccable finding will help identify the risk of heart attacks or cardiovascular death in advance. Such an approach will benefit people with chest pains to manage their health efficiently and take the required treatments.